European Webinar: Mother's own milk vs. donor milk for preterm infants
Presented by Dr. Hans van Goudoever on Tuesday, Nov 17, 2020.
When mother’s own milk is not available, donor human milk is a good alternative. However, processing the milk, including the multiple freeze and thaw processes and pasteurization does affect the quality of milk. Many differences in processing exists between milk banks, across countries, also in processes that clearly affect the quality. This presentation will give an update on the latest evidence on the efficacy of donor milk, compared to own mother’s milk, including the newest data on SARS-CoV-2 and human donor milk.
European Webinar: Human milk lipids - what do we know?
Presented by Dr. Johann Demmelmair on Tuesday, Nov 3, 2020.
Fat occurs in human milk as milk fat globules and provides about 50% of human milk energy. Although more than 200 fatty acids have been identified in human milk, there are only a limited number of fatty acids with quantitative relevance, but these form a huge number of different lipids. Non polar triglycerides, which contribute more than 98% -wt/wt to the fat, form the core of the milk fat globules. Specific for milk fat is a relatively high content of short and medium chain fatty acids with up to 14 carbon atoms and a strong enrichment of palmitic acid at the sn-2 position. Both factors enhance fat digestibility. Of importance is the content of the essential fatty acids and their long chain polyunsaturated derivatives. They are mainly provided by triglycerides, although their relative percentage may be higher in certain more polar milk lipid fractions. The polar lipids in milk include glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, and cholesterol. Quantitatively they are all minor components, but their importance for the development of the infant digestive tract, immune system and cognition has started to be recognized in recent years.
European Webinar: Functions of the milk fat globule membrane in human milk
Presented by Prof Magnus Domellöf, MD, PhD on Tues, Sept 15, 2020.
Breastfeeding is associated with many health benefits in the infant, including improved cognitive development and a reduced risk of infections. Human milk is a complex emulsion of fat globules surrounded by a triple phospholipid membrane, with membrane-bound complex lipids and proteins. Components of this highly complex membrane, the ”milk fat globule membrane” (MFGM) include choline, sphingomyelin, gangliosides, cholesterol, sialic acid, inositol and cerebrosides, which are all involved in brain development. Further, the MFGM contains mucins, butyrophilin, lactadherin, CD14, TLR1, TLR3 and xanthine oxidase, which are all important for immune function. Studies in animals support these associations and recent trials in infants suggest that MFGM may indeed improve neurodevelopment and reduce the risk of infections also in humans. These studies need to be reproduced and further studies are needed to establish the exact mechanisms behind these effects, as well as possible clinical applications.
European Webinar: Human Milk Oligosaccharides: Current Research Activities and Challenges
Presented by Prof. Dr. Clemens Kunz on Tues, August 4, 2020.
In recent years, the interest in human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) is exploding primarily due to the breakthrough in manufacturing HMOs on a large scale which can be used for commercial purposes. Hence, we are at the beginning of a new era in infant nutrition, supplementing infant formula with oligosaccharides occurring naturally in human milk. Although currently only a few HMO are available, the number is steadily increasing. To differentiate between HMOs naturally occurring in human milk and identical but commercially produced components a differing denomination for the latter should be given. The interest of the biotech and dairy industry as well as infant formula companies is enormous which raises many questions with regard to the scientific evidence supporting HMO supplementation, the selection and doses of specific components and the outcomes that should be looked at. As commercially produced HMOs may not be available to or not be used by all companies, there are great efforts to find new strategies to bring the composition of infant formula closer to that of human milk in terms of its oligosaccharide composition. Recently, HMOs have often been described as “galactosylated oligosaccharides“, a definition which is not appropriate as it disregards more important characteristics of HMOs not common to other “galactosylated oligosaccharides“ named as GOS or GOS/FOS. However, it alleviates strategies to add those non-human milk oligosaccharides to infant formula. It seems that the topic “HMO“ is often not only confusing the scientific community but, and even more importantly, commercial strategies may mislead parents looking for an alternative for their child if not breastfed.
European Webinar: The Human Milk Microbiome
Presented by Dr. Maria Carmen Collado on Tues, July 7, 2020.
Current evidence highlights the key role of early microbial colonization in promoting later health. Perturbations in this colonization process caused by factors such as C-section delivery, antibiotics, prematurity, etc., have been associated to a higher risk of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) later in life as well as obesity and allergic disease. Human microbial colonization starts at birth when the neonate is exposed to maternal microbiota and continues during lactation. Beyond nutritional aspects, human milk contains bioactive compounds as microorganisms, oligosaccharides and other substances which are involved in host-microbe interactions. Different studies shown that human milk composition is shaped by genetic factors, mode of delivery, maternal nutrition, and also, would differ within feeds, day time, lactation stage and also, between mothers and populations. This lecture is aimed to provide a global overview on milk microbiota composition and activity, factors shaping its composition and their potential biological relevance.
European Webinar: Complementary feeding and commercial complementary food
Presented by Melissa Theurich, BSc , MPH, IBCLC on Tues, June 2, 2020.
Commercial complementary foods are some of the first foods fed to infants in Europe. They make up a substantial proportion of diets of European infants and young children over the first two years of life. This webinar will review European and international recommendations for complementary feeding. It will include results from the European Childhood Obesity Project (CHOP) on the use of the commercial baby foods in 5 European countries as well as results of a national survey of commercial cereals in Germany. Cereals from Germany were found to be poor sources of micronutrients, to be high in sugar, to contain added sugars and labels rarely recommended human milk for reconstitution. Improvements of European commercial baby foods are needed.
European Webinar: COVID-19 and Breastfeeding
Presented by Diane Lynn Spatz, PhD, RN-BC, FAAN on Tues, May 5, 2020.
This presentation will review the various international recommendations and limited research studies related to human milk and breastfeeding and COVID-19 and discuss the conflicting recommendations. Despite conflicting recommendations regarding direct breastfeeding and skin to skin contact, all recommendations support the use of human milk. I will present what interventions we can do to ensure that families are making informed feeding decisions and that we give evidence-based guidance to ensure that mothers effectively establish milk supply.